Which two factors determine the extent of the systemic effects of a burn?

What are the 2 factors that affect burn severity?

Burn Severity. Severity of burn injury is determined by the depth of injury, extent of body surface injured, location of burn on the body, age of the patient, pre-burn medical history and circumstances or complicating factors (e.g., smoke inhalation, other traumatic injuries).

How do you determine the extent of a burn injury?

The extent of the burn injury is expressed as a percentage of the patient’s total body surface area (TBSA). Superficial (first-degree) burns are not included in percentage TBSA burn assessment. This estimation can be facilitated using a Lund-Browder chart, the Rule of Nines, or the palm method.

What are the systemic effects of burns?


Inflammation, hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and insulin resistance are all hallmarks of the pathophysiological response to severe burns, with changes in metabolism known to remain for several years following injury. There are two phases of burn resuscitation.

What are the factors which affect burning injury?

According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, there are multiple factors that can affect the severity of a burn. These include the patient’s age, the percentage of the body burned and the depth of the burn.

How are the depth and extent of burns assessed?

The extent and speed of capillary refill is the most useful clinical method to assess burn depth. Bear in mind however the presence of capillary refill at the time of initial assessment does not mean that the burn will remain superficial.

What is rule of nines in burns?

The size of a burn can be quickly estimated by using the “rule of nines.” This method divides the body’s surface area into percentages. The front and back of the head and neck equal 9% of the body’s surface area. The front and back of each arm and hand equal 9% of the body’s surface area.

How are the extent and severity of burns injuries classified?

Burns are classified as first-, second-, third-degree, or fourth-degree depending on how deeply and severely they penetrate the skin’s surface. First-degree (superficial) burns. First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of skin, the epidermis. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters.

What factors affect the depth of tissue destruction in burn victims?

The severity of a burn depends largely on the depth of tissue destruction and the amount of body surface affected. Other factors—including the patient’s age and prior state of health, the location of the burn wound, and the seriousness of any associated injuries—can also influence recovery from a burn.

Why is it called the rule of nines?

The rule of nines is meant to be used for: second-degree burns, also known as partial-thickness burns. third-degree burns, known as full-thickness burns.
What is the rule of nines?

Body part Percentage
Genitalia 1 percent
Head and neck 9 percent
Legs (including the feet) 18 percent each

What are the most common causes of burns?

Burns are caused by:

  • Fire.
  • Hot liquid or steam.
  • Hot metal, glass or other objects.
  • Electrical currents.
  • Radiation, such as that from X-rays.
  • Sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet radiation, such as a tanning bed.
  • Chemicals such as strong acids, lye, paint thinner or gasoline.
  • Abuse.

Jul 28, 2020

What are the 3 types of burns?

Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severely they penetrate the skin’s surface.

  • First-degree (superficial) burns. First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. …
  • Second-degree (partial thickness) burns. …
  • Third-degree (full thickness) burns.

What are the 4 types of burns?

What are the classifications of burns?

  • First-degree (superficial) burns. First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of skin, the epidermis. …
  • Second-degree (partial thickness) burns. …
  • Third-degree (full thickness) burns. …
  • Fourth-degree burns.

What body systems are affected by 3rd degree burns?

Third-degree (full thickness) burns.

Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons. When bones, muscles, or tendons are also burned, this may be called a fourth-degree burn. The burn site looks white or charred.

How do burns affect the nervous system?

A burn could affect the nerves of the body if it disrupts or damages the neuropathic system. Most burn injury survivors will report some nerve reactions to a burn; the most common being tingling, numbness, burning, weakness, pain, and sensitivity to touch. Others, however, can’t feel their nerves at all.

How do burns affect temperature regulation?

The loss of the surface of the skin by a burn leads directly to the loss of its functions resulting in an alteration in thermoregulation, alteration of sweat regulation (heat losses by evaporation) and alteration of the regulation of blood flow (heat losses by radiation and convection) (8).

How does burns affect homeostasis?

Overall, burn injury perturbs the T cell homeostasis, possibly by changing hormonal control, creating an environment that can modulate T cell populations and functions. Our results indicated that CD4+ T cells are the most affected cells.

How does burns affect the renal system?

Burns as little as 20 percent of body surface area can cause decreased blood flow to the kidneys and kidney damage. Researchers have determined that the greater the burn size, the bigger is the insult to the kidneys.