Which beta blockers are water soluble?

Beta blockers that are fat soluble are excreted by the liver and include labetalol, metoprolol, pindolol and propranolol. Those that are water soluble such as atenolol, celiprolol, nadolol, sotalol are cleared by the kidney.

Is bisoprolol water-soluble?

Studies in asthmatics confirm the selectivity of bisoprolol. Bisoprolol has similar solubility in water and organic solvents and predictably therefore about half is excreted by the kidneys unchanged, half metabolized by the liver.

Which beta-blockers are hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic beta-blockers, such as atenolol and nadolol, where therefore introduced in clinical practice.

Which beta blocker is lipid soluble?

Lipid solubility is higher in agents such as propranolol and carvedilol, but lower in agents such as atenolol and nadolol. It may influence the degree of central nervous system (CNS) effects and utility of hemodialysis or hemoperfusion.

Is metoprolol water-soluble?

Metoprolol succinate is a white crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 652.8. It is freely soluble in water; soluble in methanol; sparingly soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in dichloromethane and 2-propanol; practically insoluble in ethyl-acetate, acetone, diethylether and heptane.

Is metoprolol lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Beta-blockers (including lipophilic drugs such as propranolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol, and hydrophilic drugs such as atenolol and sotalol) are part of the preventive cardiology armamentarium. Most patients with ICDs are prescribed one or more lipophilic or hydrophilic β-blockers.

Is bisoprolol lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Bisoprolol has low lipophilicity, so it does not cross the blood-brain barrier with a high amount. Bisoprolol fumarate has a long half-life that extends from 9 to 12 hours.

Which is better propranolol or metoprolol?

Comparing the effects of treatment, labetalol lowered sitting diastolic pressure significantly more than propranolol and standing diastolic pressure than both propranolol and metoprolol. Metoprolol and propranolol were more effective in reducing heart rate.

Which is better atenolol or metoprolol?

Metoprolol showed a more significant reduction in risk of cardiovascular mortality as compared to atenolol. Metoprolol also showed a decreased trend for all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease. When evaluated for a decrease in risk of stroke, metoprolol proved to be superior to atenolol as well.

What is the difference between metoprolol and bisoprolol?

Bisoprolol* or metoprolol succinate are first-choice beta-blockers for patients with atrial fibrillation as they are prescribed once-daily and do not require dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment. Bisoprolol is preferred as it is more cardioselective than metoprolol and may cause more bradycardia.

Is metoprolol stronger than bisoprolol?

To demonstrate that bisoprolol is superior in mean ambulatory heart rate and/or non-inferior in mean ambulatory DBP as compared with metoprolol SR in the last 4 hours after 12-week active treatment in subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension (EH).

Which is better bisoprolol or atenolol?

Bisoprolol had a significantly greater antihypertensive effect than atenolol, reducing sitting blood pressures by 15.9 mm Hg (diastolic) and 21.9 mm Hg (systolic) compared with placebo. Corresponding figures for atenolol were 10.7 and 5.7 mm Hg respectively.