Where is a dens fracture?

A fracture of the odontoid bone (also called the dens), is an upward extension of C2 cervical vertebrae (i.e., axis) up into the C1 cervical vertebrae (i.e., atlas) and is held in place partially by the alar, apical and transverse ligaments.

Where is the dens located in the spine?

second cervical vertebra

The odontoid process (also dens or odontoid peg) is a protuberance (process or projection) of the Axis (second cervical vertebra). It exhibits a slight constriction or neck, where it joins the main body of the vertebra.

Is the dens on C1 or C2?

C1 and C2 vertebrae.

The C1 vertebra, also called atlas, is shaped like a ring. The C2 vertebra has an upward-facing long bony process called the dens. The dens forms a joint with the C1 vertebra and facilitates its turning motions, thereby allowing the head to turn in different directions.

What happens if you fracture your dens?

These fractures can alter the biomechanics (movement) of the cervical spine leading to pain, neurologic problems (numbness in the back, legs, and arms), and decreased stability. Sometimes these fractures are missed or left untreated, and they can be associated with increased morbidity (disease) in older patients.

Which vertebrae has a dens?


The second cervical vertebra, or axis, supports the dens, or odontoid process, which projects rostrally from the body, serving as a pivotal restraint against horizontal displacement of the atlas.

How do you fracture the dens?

Odontoid fractures occur as a result of trauma to the cervical spine. In younger patients, they are typically the result of high-energy trauma, which occurs as a result of motor vehicle or diving accidents.

Is the dens anterior or posterior?

Clinically Relevant Anatomy

The odontoid process lies anterior to the spinal cord and is used as the pivot for the rotation of the head.

What is the purpose of the dens?

The dens (odontoid process) of the axis exists as a superior projection from the C2 vertebral body and is conical in shape and serves as an attachment site for the transverse, apical, and alar ligaments [1-2].

What does the dens articulate with?

One of the most prominent features of the axis bone is a superior, tooth-like projection called the odontoid process (or dens). articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas bone, where they form a pivot joint.

When does the dens fuse?

The odontoid process forms in utero from two separate ossification centers that fuse in the midline by the 7th fetal month. A secondary ossification center appears at the apex of the odontoid process (os terminale) between 3 and 6 years of age and fuses by age 12 years.

Which part of a vertebra is known as the Centrum?

Every vertebra has a body (vertebral body), which consists of a large anterior middle portion called the centrum (vertebral centrum, plural centra) and a posterior vertebral arch, also called a neural arch.

What are dens in anatomy?

The dens, also called the odontoid process or the peg, is the most pronounced projecting feature of the axis. The dens exhibits a slight constriction where it joins the main body of the vertebra.

Why do vertebrae have foramen?

The vertebral foramen is of functional importance since it provides for the passage of the spinal cord and the meninges. This foramen gets progressively smaller as one moves inferiorly.

What is posterior to the vertebral foramen?

In a typical vertebra, the vertebral foramen is the foramen (opening) formed by the anterior segment (the body), and the posterior part, the vertebral arch.

What is foramen in spine?

The foramen is the bony hollow archway created by pedicles of adjacent vertebrae, creating a passageway through which all spinal nerve roots run. As a spinal nerve branches from the spinal cord, it exits through this opening and travels to organs, muscles and sensory structures of the body.

What goes in the vertebral foramen?

the spinal cord

function in vertebral column
arch surround an opening, the vertebral foramen, through which the spinal cord passes. The centrums are separated by cartilaginous intervertebral disks, which help cushion shock in locomotion.

What nerves are in the cauda equina?

A group of nerve roots that travel down from the spinal cord and the conus medullaris is called the cauda equina. The cauda equina contains nerve roots from L2 in the lumbar spine to Co1 in the coccygeal (tail bone end) spine.

Where is the neural foramen?


Neural foramina are critical structures in the spine that contain exiting nerve roots. Narrowing of these foramina leads to compression of nerve roots, which results in the clinical syndrome of radiculopathy (1).

Where is C5 and C6?

lower cervical spine

The C5-C6 spinal motion segment (located in the lower cervical spine just above the C7 vertebra) provides flexibility and support to much of the neck and the head above.

What is posterior disc bulge?

A bulging disc occurs when the nucleus pulposus—the soft, jelly-like center of the disc that gives the disc shock-absorbing capacities—extends beyond its normal position inside the disc structure, but remains contained within the annulus fibrosus.

Where is L4 and L5?

lumbar spine

The L4 and L5 are the two lowest vertebrae of the lumbar spine. Together with the intervertebral disc, joints, nerves, and soft tissues, the L4-L5 spinal motion segment provides a variety of functions, including supporting the upper body and allowing trunk motion in multiple directions.

What part of the spine controls the legs?

lumbar spinal cord

The lumbar spinal cord is the lower area of the back. Nerve roots coming from the spinal cord in the lumbar spine control the legs. The lumbar region is where the spinal cord ends (the spinal cord is shorter than the spine).

Can L5 cause bladder problems?

Spinal cord lesions produce various types of voiding dysfunction, depending on the level of the neuraxis involved. Acute herniation of a central disk at L5-S1 is a neurosurgical emergency when the patient comes in with sudden onset of painful urinary retention.