Where does Ephedra Sinica grow?

There are 40 known ephedra species distributed among the arid and semiarid regions of Asia, Europe, northern Africa, western North America, and South America. They can grow from sea level up to 5,000 meters high in the Himalayan and Andes mountains.

Does Ephedra grow in India?

Ephedra gerardiana (Gerard’s jointfir, 山岭麻黄 shan ling ma huang) is a species of Ephedra, endemic to the mountains of Afghanistan, Bhutan, northern India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim, Tajikistan, and Tibet.

How much ephedrine is in Ephedra sinica?

sinica, including one that was 98% ephedrine, one that had 10% norpseudoephedrine, and one that contained an average of 13% methylephedrine. We conclude that product inconsistency is common among some commercially available dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids and caffeine.

How do I know if I have Ephedra?

The Ephedras are leafless desert shrubs with jointed, green stems forming in whorls at nodes along the stalk. Unlike other naked seeds, the Ephedras lack resin canals. The male cones have 2 to 8 anthers. The female cones have bracts covering the two maturing seeds.

Does Ephedra grow in New Zealand?

Most abundant within the north eastern South Island. It is highly threatened in the North Island and appears to be extinct around Lake Taupo. Small populations persist in the Hawkes Bay, southern Wairarapa and south Wellington coastline.

How do you make Ephedra sinica?

Medicinal recipe: Ephedra Tea (a coffee substitute) ¼ to 1 tsp. dried ephedra (stems), 8 ounces boiling water Pour water over the tea and allow to steep for 5- 10 minutes.

Is Ephedra and Ma Huang the same?

Ephedra (Ephedra sinica), also called ma huang, is an herb that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for more than 5,000 years, primarily to treat asthma, bronchitis, and hay fever. Ephedra is also prescribed for symptoms of cold and flu, including nasal congestion, cough, fever, and chills.

What plants produce ephedrine?

tibetica Stapf and Ephedra distachya Linne (the Ephedras), that are sources of ephedrine alkaloids (including ephedrine and pseudoephedrine.) Other plant sources that contain such ephedrine alkaloids include Sida cordifolia L. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino.

What plant has ephedrine in it?

plant Ephedra vulgaris

Ephedrine, a precursor of methamphetamine, is the active alkaloid of the plant Ephedra vulgaris, which has been used in China for centuries as the herb Ma Huang.

What NZ plants contain ephedrine?

But a top-level report, sourced from the United Nations, says some New Zealand illicit drug manufacturers are also using the ephedra plant. The plant is a natural source of ephedrine and is widely used in Asian herbal remedies.

Is ephedra legal in NZ?

From all ephedrine and pseudoephedrine containing products will become controlled drugs in New Zealand. This means that ephedrine and pseudoephedrine will be controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 and the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 1977.

What is ephedra in?

Ephedra is used in weight loss supplements. Proponents claim that it may help promote weight loss and suppress appetite. Prior to the ban on ephedra supplements, many dietary supplements marketed for weight loss also contained caffeine-containing herbs, such as green tea, yerba mate, and guarana.

How much ephedrine is in Ma Huang?

Ma-huang is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb derived from EPHEDRA: sinica Stapf and other EPHEDRA: species, used to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. It contains 0.5-2.5% by weight of total alkaloids, of which ephedrine accounts for 30 to 90%.

Why did the FDA ban ephedra?

The FDA banned dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids because of their serious safety risks. The supplements were associated with cases of heart attack, seizure, stroke, and sudden death.

Can ephedrine cause high blood pressure?

At higher doses, ephedrine causes hypertension and tachycardia. Because it crosses the blood-brain barrier, ephedrine can cause agitation and insomnia. In patients with prostatic hypertrophy, ephedrine can produce urinary retention.

Do you develop tolerance to ephedrine?

Tolerance to ephedrine sulfate may develop, but temporary discontinuance to the drug restores its original effectiveness.

Does ephedrine deplete?

Ephedrine may deplete norepinephrine stores in sympathetic nerve endings and tachyphylaxis to the cardiac and pressor effects of the drug may develop.

Does ephedrine release dopamine?

Ephedrine, which has been used as a decongestant and weight loss agent, causes both central serotonin and dopamine (DA) release (Bowyer et al., 2000).

What is ECA stack?

An ECA stack is a combination of ephedrine, caffeine, and aspirin tablets. When taken together, these ingredients are said to promote weight loss and boost athletic performance.

How does ephedrine effect the brain?

Ephedrine also has harmful side effects. It activates pathways in the human brain that are responsible for weight loss, but it also activates pathways that could lead to dramatic change in heart rate or blood pressure. Moreover, ephedrine, like nicotine, produces a “high” and can be addictive.