What is the name of the perforating veins located in the upper thigh?

What are the perforator veins?

What Are Perforating Veins? The connections between the deep and superficial venous systems are called perforating veins and can have faulty valves as well. When blood begins to flow backwards or the valve is otherwise functioning improperly, pressures can build within the vein walls.

Where are perforating veins located?

They exist along the length of the lower limb, in greater number in the leg (anatomical ref to below knee) than in the thigh. Some veins are named after the physician who first described them: Dodd’s perforator at the inferior 1/3 of the thigh. Boyd’s perforator at the knee level.

Where is Boyds perforating vein located?

At the top of the inner portion of the calf there are Paratibial Perforator veins (Boyd’s Perforator) .

What is the name of the main vein in the thigh region?

A large blood vessel of the thigh, the femoral vein is a major pathway in which blood from the lower limbs travels on its way back to the heart. It is sometimes called the superficial femoral vein (in contrast with the deep femoral vein).

Do perforating veins have valves?

GSV, great saphenous vein; TV, terminal valve. opening of the tributary veins. It is well known that perforating veins are furnished with valves.

How many perforating veins are there?

Although there are 150 perforating veins (PVs) in the lower extremity (LE), only a few of them are clinically significant [5]. Perforators are located between the deep and the superficial veins [great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), anterior or posterior accessory GSV or VVs].

What is a perforating artery?

An artery with its origin in the deep artery of the thigh, with distribution as three or four vessels that pass through the great adductor muscle to the posterior and lateral parts of the thigh.

What are the veins of the upper limb?

The deep veins of the upper extremity include the paired ulnar, radial, and interosseous veins in the forearm; paired brachial veins of the upper arm; and axillary vein. The axillary vein originates at the lower border of the teres major muscle in continuity with the brachial veins.

What is perforator incompetence?

Perforator veins have one-way valves designed to prevent backflow of blood down towards the superficial veins. When those valves no longer function properly and reflux occurs, the buildup of blood and pressure can cause not only the superficial veins but the perforators themselves to become incompetent.

Where is distal femoral vein?

Proximally in the canal, the vein lies posterior to the artery in the distal femoral triangle and medial to the artery at the base of the triangle. In the upper thigh, the vein is between the common femoral artery and femoral canal and therefore occupies the intermediate/middle compartment of the femoral sheath.

Where are femoral veins?

The femoral vein is located in the upper thigh and pelvic region of the human body. It travels in close proximity to the femoral artery.

Where is profunda femoris vein located?

The deep femoral vein or the profunda femoris vein lies anterior to its artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of the artery. Through these tributaries it connects distally with the popliteal and proximally with the inferior gluteal veins.

What is a radial vein?

The radial vein is one of the two major deep veins of the forearm, along with the ulnar vein. As is usual in the upper and lower limbs, there are often two veins (venae comitantes) that run on either side of the radial artery and anastomose freely with each other. It forms in the hand from the deep palmar venous arch.

What is SF Junction?

The sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) is located at the saphenous opening within the groin and formed by the meeting of the great saphenous vein (GSV), common femoral vein and the superficial inguinal veins (confluens venosus subinguinalis).

What is a basilic vein?

The basilic vein receives tributaries from the ulnar component of the dorsal venous network. It runs up the posterior surface of the forearm and curves around the ulnar border below the elbow to the anterior surface of the forearm. In the elbow, it is joined by the vena mediana cubiti, a branch from the cephalic vein.

What is a dorsal vein?

The deep dorsal vein of the penis drains oxygen-depleted blood away from the glans, which is the external head of the sexual organ. This vein runs the length of the shaft and it eventually flows into the prostatic venous plexus near a man’s prostate gland.

Where is the radial vein located?


The radial veins run the length of the forearm just below the elbow, and follow the path of the radial bone. Their path is also somewhat comparable to the radial arteries. These veins assist in draining oxygen-depleted blood from the hand and forearm.

What is AVF transposition?

The arteriovenous fistula transposition is based on a first-stage proximal radial artery to median cubital vein arteriovenous fistula. Transposed brachial veins were elevated and positioned anteriorly to the incision to avoid repeated needle access through the surgical scar (Fig 2).

What is Second Stage basilic vein transposition?

In two-stage procedures, the basilic vein is mobilised through a transverse antecubital fossa incision followed by creation of the fistula. Following a period of 4–6 weeks necessary for maturation, the second stage involves mobilisation of the basilic vein through two longitudinal skip incisions (Fig.

What is an AV fistula surgery?

An AV fistula is a surgically placed “shunt”; that is, an artery is directly sutured to a vein. An artery is a high-pressure vessel that carries blood away from the heart and delivers nutrients and oxygen to the tissues.

What is cephalic vein transposition?

The option for cephalic vein transposition (CVT), described by Chen et al., involves surgical revision to redirect the blood flow to the adjacent patient veins.

What is the CPT code for basilic vein transposition?

This is typically reported by CPT code 36819 (arteriovenous anastomosis, open; by upper arm basilic vein transposition).

What is a Brachiocephalic AV fistula?

The brachiocephalic fistula is an upper arm fistula created by anastomosing the cephalic vein to the brachial artery. A transverse incision is made over the antecubital fossa. The brachial artery and cephalic vein are dissected, mobilized, and secured using vessel loops.

What is a loop graft?

Method: A synthetic arteriovenous loop graft is formed using the axillary artery and vein under general anesthesia following pre-operative contrast venograms. Discussion: This method allows the use of the upper arm vessels, thereby preserving vessels in the legs; it also facilitates immediate access for dialysis.