What is the Epicranial Aponeurosis?

The galea aponeurotica (also called the galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp.

What is the purpose of epicranial aponeurosis?

The epicranial aponeurosis provides the insertion point for the occipitofrontalis muscle, a thin, broad muscle that covers the top of your skull. This muscle controls many of your facial expressions. Every time you raise your eyebrows, you can thank your occipitofrontalis muscle and your epicranial aponeurosis!

Where is the epicranial aponeurosis located?

Epicranial Aponeurosis also referred to as the Galea Aponeurotica or the aponeurosis epicranialis is a broad tendon and is the intermediate section of the occipitofrontalis muscle. It runs from the superior portion of the frontal bone and covers the parietal bones to the lambdoid suture.

What muscle originates at the epicranial aponeurosis?

Occipitofrontalis muscle

Origin Frontal belly (frontalis): Skin of eyebrow, muscles of forehead Occipital belly (occipitalis): (Lateral 2/3 of) superior nuchal line
Insertion Epicranial aponeurosis
Action Frontal belly: Elevates eyebrows, wrinkles skin of forehead Occipital belly: Retracts scalp

What are the epicranial muscles?

The epicranial muscle, also called the epicranius, consists of two sections and covers the forehead, top, and upper-rear portion of the skull.

How does an aponeurosis differ from a tendon?

Aponeuroses and tendons are connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. Aponeurosis is an extremely delicate, thin sheath-like structure, which attaches muscles to the bones whereas tendons are tough, rounded cord-like structures which are extensions of the muscle.

What’s the difference between an aponeurosis and a tendon?

The main difference is that Aponeurosis connects the muscles of the body to other muscles which necessitate help, while the tendons serve as a link between the muscles and the bones.

What is the function of aponeurosis?

Their primary function is to join muscles and the body parts they act upon, whether bone or other muscles. They have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, and are very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. When dissected, aponeuroses are papery and peel off by sections.

What does the aponeurosis consist of?

The aponeurosis is composed of dense fibrous connective tissue containing fibroblasts (collagen-secreting spindle-shaped cells) and bundles of collagenous fibres in ordered arrays. Aponeuroses are structurally similar to tendons and ligaments.

What bones are covered by the epicranial aponeurosis?

It links the two parts of occipitofrontalis forming a continuous sheet adjacent to the cranium, from the occipital bone to the frontal bone.

What is occipital belly?

The occipitalis muscle (occipital belly) is a muscle which covers parts of the skull. Some sources consider the occipital muscle to be a distinct muscle. However, Terminologia Anatomica currently classifies it as part of the occipitofrontalis muscle along with the frontalis muscle.

What is the aponeurosis of the scalp?

The galea aponeurotica (also called the galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp.

Where can frontalis be found?

The frontalis muscle is thin, of a quadrilateral form, and intimately adherent to the superficial fascia. It is broader than the occipitalis and its fibers are longer and paler in color. It is located on the front of the head. The muscle has no bony attachments.

What is the function of the frontalis?

The frontalis muscle is responsible for elevating the eyebrows, while the corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, and procerus play a role in its depression. The function of the forehead is often spared in middle cerebral artery strokes.

What is the synergist of frontalis?


Facial muscles (facial expression)
Frontalis Covers the forehead and dome of the skull – raises eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead
Brachialis Major flexing muscle, strongest in the arm.
Brachioradialis Synergist muscle in arm flexion. Weak muscle but works when arm is partially flexed.
Wrist and hand

How much does frontalis Botox cost?

Forehead (Frontalis muscle): (12-20 units).

Where do you inject frontalis?

The frontalis inserts into the skin above eyebrows. The purpose of this muscle is to raise the eyebrows as well as the skin over the nose and the eyes ( Visible Body, 2016 ).

What happens if Botox is injected too deep?

If the injection is done too fast or too deep, excessive swelling and bruising can occur. Bruising is especially common if the injector hits a vein or pushes to hard. While this is a temporary side effect, the patient will be forced to live with an unsightly bruise for days if not weeks.

How do you inject the frontalis?

Youtube quote:First ask the client to raise their eyebrows for you so you can see where the distribution of the lines on the forehead are and relax for me i can now proceed to marking the forehead.

Where should you never inject Botox?

There are a few key areas to avoid when injecting Botox. These include the forehead, the area between the eyebrows, and the crow’s feet. These are some of the most commonly injected areas, and injecting Botox into them can result in a frozen or surprised expression.

What angle do you inject Botox?

a 45-degree angle

Inject at a 45-degree angle, away from the medial aspect of the muscle to avoid ptosis of the eyelid.

How deep should you inject Botox?

Even if the masseter muscle is reached, failure to inject deeply enough can leave the lower parts of the muscle moving as normal while the top part is relaxed, creating a ‘chipmunk’ appearance. Practitioners should aim to inject at the site where the muscle meets the bone, using a longer ½” needle for best results.

What happens if Botox goes into a vein?

If the Botox injection is allowed to pierce a vein and travel to other areas of the face, partial temporary paralysis may be the result. Some patients have experienced difficulty with speech or freezing of facial muscles after a Botox injection was erroneously allowed to migrate to other parts of the face.

What happens if you inject Botox into an artery?

Bruising after receiving a BOTOX treatment is rare, but it can happen to some. Even the best physicians can cause a patient to bruise after administering BOTOX. It often occurs when the needle knicks a blood vessel, allowing blood to leak below the skin’s surface and causing the surface to appear reddish and/or purple.