What is the acid phosphatase test?

The acid phosphatase (AP) test is a routine assay used to screen casework items for the possible presence of semen. This colour test is carried out on filter paper which is retained after testing.

What does high acid phosphatase mean?

Acid phosphatase: An enzyme that acts to liberate phosphate under acidic conditions and is made in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and prostate gland. Abnormally high serum levels of acid phosphatase may indicate infection, injury, or cancer of the prostate.

What does acid phosphatase test measure?

what is a psa test? PSA or prostate specific antigen is defined as a protein that could be produced by the both normal and the malignant prostate gland cells. This is also known as the serum acid phosphatase test and evaluates the PSA levels in the blood.

What is the positive result for acid phosphatase test?

Positive Results

If acid phosphatase is present, a purple color will appear within a short period of time (30 seconds). Weak stains may take between 1 to 3 minutes. 2. A positive reaction indicates the presumptive presence of seminal fluid.

What disease is diagnosed by monitoring acid phosphatase activity?

This resulted in recurrent infections. Prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) has been used extensively as a serum marker for cancer of the prostate.
Table 2.

Human acid phosphatase (AP) Clinical and laboratory importance
Prostatic (PAP) Serum marker for cancer of the prostate15

What is ALP normal range?

The normal range is 44 to 147 international units per liter (IU/L) or 0.73 to 2.45 microkatal per liter (µkat/L). Normal values may vary slightly from laboratory to laboratory. They also can vary with age and sex. High levels of ALP are normally seen in children undergoing growth spurts and in pregnant women.

What is the purpose of acid phosphatase?

Function. Acid phosphatase (ACP, EC number 3.1. 3.2) is an enzyme which removes phosphate from other molecules during digestion. It catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester and H2O to alcohol and phosphoric acid.

What is the function of acid phosphatase?

Acid phosphatase is a ubiquitous lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyses organic phosphates at an acid pH. Although the postpuberteral prostatic epithelial cell contains a uniquely high concentration of acid phosphatase, cellular components of bone, spleen, kidney, liver, intestine, and blood also contain this enzyme.

What does acid phosphatase react with?

The acid phosphatase reaction is a typical test in which the suspected seminal stain or an extract of it on a filter paper is reacted with a solution of the substrate, a monophenolic phosphoric acid or its ester, in acetate buffer of pH 5.

Where is acid phosphatase found in the body?

the prostate gland

Acid phosphatase is one of a group of enzymes located primarily in the prostate gland and prostatic secretions. Smaller amounts are found in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidneys, and blood components such as erythrocytes and platelets.

What reaction does phosphatase facilitate?

Phosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester, removing a phosphate moiety from the substrate. Water is split in the reaction, with the -OH group attaching to the phosphate ion, and the H+ protonating the hydroxyl group of the other product.

What is the normal value of prostatic ACP?

Normal. 2.5 to 3.7 ng /mL or 2.5 to 3.7 µg/L. or less than 3.0 mg /L.

Is acid phosphatase a tumor marker?

Acid phosphatase was the first tumor marker to be mea- sured in blood. Although it is used as a marker of pros- tatic carcinoma, serum levels are also elevated in many diseases of prostate, bone, and hematologic tissue.

What is the difference between acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase?

The key difference between acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase is that acid phosphatase is a phosphatase enzyme that is optimally active in an acidic pH, while alkaline phosphatase is a phosphatase enzyme that is optimally active in an alkaline pH.

Which tissue is richest in ACP?

The greatest concentration of ACP activity occurs in the liver, spleen, milk, RBCs, bone marrow, platelets, and prostate glands. The prostate is the richest source of ACP.

How many subunits does alkaline phosphatase have?

two

Ubiquity of Alkaline Phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatases are found in all living things and are characterized by their ability to hydrolyze phosphate groups from a wide range of substrates in alkaline conditions. Alkaline phosphatases function as homodimers, consisting of two identical subunits called monomers.

What happens if alkaline phosphatase is high?

Higher-than-normal levels of ALP in your blood may indicate a health concern with your liver or gallbladder. This could include a blockage in your bile ducts, gallstones, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and some forms of hepatitis.

What is the treatment for high alkaline phosphatase?

If your levels are high due to liver disease, you may want to take supplements and nutrients that will help your liver regenerate. Some good options include milk thistle, NAC, taurine, B vitamins, and vitamin C. Additionally, get enough sun, exercise, omega-3 fatty acids, and coffee.

What are the symptoms of high alkaline phosphatase?

The degree to which the ALP level is elevated or lower than usual may indicate the type or severity of a condition. Signs and symptoms of liver disease include: Jaundice — a condition that causes your skin and the whites of your eyes to turn yellow. Abdominal (belly) pain and/or swelling, especially on your right side.

What infections cause high alkaline phosphatase?

Abnormally high ALP values may be the result of:

  • Bacterial infections.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer)
  • Cholelithiasis (gallstones)
  • Biliary obstruction or dyskinesia (lack of motility)
  • Bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.
  • Bone conditions, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis.

When should I worry about Alt?

High levels of ALT may indicate liver damage from hepatitis, infection, cirrhosis, liver cancer, or other liver diseases. Other factors, including medicines, can affect your results. Be sure to tell your health care provider about all the prescription and over-the counter medicines you are taking.

What foods raise alkaline phosphatase?

If your ALP levels are low due to a nutritional deficiency, correct the underlying nutritive cause. Eat more foods rich in: Protein, such as dairy products, meat, poultry, beans, eggs, fish, and nuts and seeds [20] B vitamins, such as meat, fish, leafy vegetables, beans, grains, dairy products, and eggs [21, 22]

Can low vitamin D cause high alkaline phosphatase?

Vitamin D deficiency is reemerging worldwide (5), and elevated serum ALP is a hallmark of this disease (1). Vitamin D deficiency may fail to be diagnosed if serum ALP is not elevated.