What is patellar apprehension test?

Knee-Special Test When a patient expresses apprehension or try to move their affected knee away from the pressure, this indicate a positive sign. This is a sound test to find out whether a patient is having symptoms for a subluxing or dislocating patella.

What is the patellar apprehension test test for?

This is a sound test to find out whether a patient is having symptoms for a subluxing or dislocating patella.

How do you perform the patellar apprehension test?


With the thumb of both hands press on the medial side of the patella to exert laterally directed. Pressure. In a positive test the patient may be surprised by the lateral displacement of the patella.

How do you test for patellar instability?

Patellar-glide test: This test is used to evaluate the instability. A medial/lateral displacement of the patella greater than or equal to 3 quadrants, with this test, is consistent with incompetent lateral/medial restraints. Lateral patellar instability is more frequent than medial instability.

What is a positive patellar glide test?

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The patella glide aims to assess me instability. By looking at the sideways movement of the kneecap or patella it can be used to assess the tightness of the structures around the joint if the patella

What is Q angle of the knee?

The Q angle, which is also known as quadriceps angle, is defined as the angle formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon. It was described for the first time by Brattstrom in 1964 [1].

What causes increased Q angle?

The Q angle typically increases a degree with weightbearing owing to a valgus adaptation of the knee. In general patients with Q angles greater than 14° are vulnerable to patellar conditions, particularly abnormal tracking and instability.

What is a positive Clarke’s test?

A positive test was indicated by the presence of pain sufficient to prevent the patient from maintaining a quadriceps contraction against resistance longer than 2 seconds. A negative test meant the participant could contract the quadriceps and hold it for 2 seconds while pain free.

What is Clarke’s test knee?

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Quality which is why only a weak clinical value can be attributed to the test. Position yourself next to the patients on the involved site and place the webspace of the thumb on the superior border of

What is patellar lateralization?

Constitutionally, it can appear, that due to lacking muscular guidance or as a consequence of former kneecap injuries, the kneecap drifts outwardly from its slide bearing. This is called patellar lateralization (outward drifting of the kneecap) or patellar subluxation.

What is lateralization of tibial tuberosity?

The lateralized distance of the tibial tubercle was defined as the mediolateral distance between the tip of the tibial tubercle and the medial border of the tibial condyle and was divided by the tibial width to calculate the TTL.

What causes lateral patellar tilt?

It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, trauma, muscle dysfunction, tight lateral restraints, patellar hypermobility, and poor quadriceps flexibility.

What is normal TT TG distance?

Several studies suggest that a normal TT-TG distance is 10 mm or less [5, 7, 8]. A TT-TG distance greater than 15 mm in patients with patellofemoral insta- bility may predict limited benefit from phys- ical therapy [7].

What is patella baja?

Patella baja is defined as an abnormal low-lying patella that remains distal in relation to the femoral trochlea. It can affect patellofemoral tracking. To evaluate patellar height, different techniques and measuring classifications are available. Insall J.

What is patellar translation?

Patellar translation is the distance between tibial tubercle and trochlear groove and is also called TT-TG distance. It is measured on CT or MRI by overlapping or superimposing axial images of the femoral condyles and tibial tuberosity. The measurements are used to quantify patellar instability.

What is Maltracking?

Patellar tracking disorder, also known as patellar maltracking, is a condition in which the kneecap (patella) moves sideways from its groove when the leg is bent or straightened.

What is a patella alta?

Patella alta or high-riding patella refers to an abnormally high patella in relation to the femur. The patella sits high on the femur where the groove is very shallow. Here, the sides of the femoral groove provide only a small barrier to keep the high-riding patella in place.

What is Grasshopper eyed patella?

Physical Examination



Knee Bent: With patella alta, when the knee is bent to 90 degrees (a right angle), the kneecaps point upwards instead of forwards and may be externally tilted and rotated, twisted round to the outer side of the knee. This is known as a positive “grasshopper eyes sign”.

What is the difference between patella alta and patella baja?

If the patella is sitting too high (equivalent to the patellar tendon being too long) then this is called patella alta. If the patella is sitting too low (i.e. a short patellar tendon) then this is patella baja (sometimes referred to as patella infera).

How do you measure patella baja?

TL is obtained by measuring the length of the inner border of the patellar tendon from the lower pole of the patella to the notch in the tibial cortex at the superior border of the tibial tubercle.

How is CT TT TG distance measured?

Draw a line along the posterior femoral condyles, and then draw the following lines perpendicular to this line:

  1. bisecting the tibial tuberosity (TT)
  2. bisecting the trochlear groove sulcus (TG)
  3. measure the distance between TT and TG = TT-TG distance.


What is index of insall and Salvati?

The Insall-Salvati ratio or index is the ratio of the patella tendon length to the length of the patella and is used to determine patellar height.