What is meningitis Wikipedia?

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness.Differential diagnosis:

What is the main cause of meningitis?

Viral infections are the most common cause of meningitis, followed by bacterial infections and, rarely, fungal and parasitic infections.

What are the 3 types of meningitis?

The three types of meningitis are viral meningitis, fungal meningitis, and bacterial meningitis. The meninges are membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis occurs when these membranes become inflamed, potentially causing serious complications for the nervous system.

How do viruses cause meningitis?

Transmission of viral meningitis

Spread through the bloodstream from an infection in another part of the body (the most common way) Contact with contaminated stool, which may occur when infected people do not wash their hands after a bowel movement or when they swim in a public swimming pool (for enteroviruses)

How does meningitis cause death?

Brain herniation, circulatory failure, intractable seizures and other brain injury were the most common specific causes of death within 14 days from admission (55%). Conclusion: Fatal complications due to the primary infection – meningitis – is most common within 14 days of admission.

What does meningitis do to the brain?

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) that protect the spinal cord and brain. When the membranes become infected, they swell and press on the spinal cord or brain. This can cause life-threatening problems. Meningitis symptoms strike suddenly and worsen quickly.

What are the symptoms of meningitis in adults?

Symptoms of meningitis develop suddenly and can include:

  • a high temperature (fever)
  • being sick.
  • a headache.
  • a rash that does not fade when a glass is rolled over it (but a rash will not always develop)
  • a stiff neck.
  • a dislike of bright lights.
  • drowsiness or unresponsiveness.
  • seizures (fits)

What bacteria causes meningitis?

Meningococcal disease is any illness caused by a type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. These illnesses are serious and include meningitis and bloodstream infections (septicemia).

Can you recover from meningitis?

Most people who get mild viral meningitis usually recover completely in 7 to 10 days without treatment. Antiviral medicine may help people with meningitis caused by viruses such as herpesvirus and influenza. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis.

How do I know if I’ve got meningitis?

Meningitis and septicaemia can kill in hours – know the symptoms. The first symptoms are usually fever, vomiting, headache and feeling unwell. Limb pain, pale skin, and cold hands and feet often appear earlier than the rash, neck stiffness, dislike of bright lights and confusion.

What is the survival rate of meningitis?

WHAT IS THE PROGNOSIS? Prognosis of meningitis depends on the cause. Untreated bacterial meningitis has a very high death rate. Even with appropriate treatment, the death rate from bacterial meningitis is about 15-20%, with a higher death rate associated with increasing age.

Who is generally at highest risk for meningitis Why?

Age – In general, young children are at the highest risk of getting bacterial meningitis and septicaemia but other age groups can also be vulnerable to specific types. Geography and environment – Some countries have higher rates of meningitis and septicaemia.

What are the 5 types of meningitis?

There are actually five types of meningitis — bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal, and non-infectious — each classified by the cause of the disease.

Can meningitis spread through water?

Parasitic meningitis is extremely rare and life-threatening. It’s caused by a microscopic amoeba called Naegleria fowleri. This parasite enters the body through the nose, usually in contaminated lakes and rivers. You can’t get it by drinking contaminated water and it isn’t contagious.

How is meningitis prevented?

Vaccines are the most effective way to protect against certain types of bacterial meningitis. There are vaccines for 4 types of bacteria that can cause meningitis: Meningococcal vaccines help protect against N.

What are the side effects after having meningitis?

After effects most likely to be caused by meningitis

  • Memory loss/lack of concentration/difficulty retaining information.
  • Clumsiness/co-ordination problems.
  • Headaches.
  • Deafness/hearing problems/tinnitus/dizziness/loss of balance.
  • Epilepsy/seizures.
  • Weakness/paralysis/spasms.
  • Speech problems.
  • Loss of sight/vision problems.

Is meningitis the kissing disease?

6. Is meningitis contagious? Close contact – not casual contact at work or school – can spread the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis. This includes kissing, coughing, or sneezing.

Is there a vaccine for bacterial meningitis?

Meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) is highly effective at protecting against four strains of the meningococcal bacteria. Three strains are common in the United States and the fourth strain protects travelers to certain countries where the disease is more common.

How do doctors test for meningitis?

The most reliable way to diagnose meningitis is with a lumbar puncture . During a lumbar puncture, a doctor inserts a long, thin needle in between two vertebrae in the lower back. This allows them to withdraw some cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the fluid that cushions the brain and spinal cord.

Is there a vaccine for bacteria?

The most globally used bacterial vaccines are those included in the national childhood vaccination programs. Currently, mainly two of the vaccines included target bacterial pathogens that also pose antibiotic resistance problems, namely Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci).

Where is meningitis commonly found?

Meningococcal disease occurs worldwide, with the highest incidence of disease found in the ‘meningitis belt’ of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region, major epidemics occur every 5 to 12 years with attack rates reaching 1,000 cases per 100,000 population.

Which organs would be affected first by meningitis?

Course of the disease

Bacterial meningitis usually has three main stages. At first, the bacteria multiply in the nasal passages and throat, often causing no painful symptoms. Next, they invade the blood, introducing toxic substances into the circulation and causing fever; if the infection is caused by N.