What is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome?

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS), also known as Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS) is a dangerous condition resulting from very high blood glucose levels. HHNS can affect both types of diabetics, yet it usually occurs amongst people with type 2 diabetes.

What causes hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome?

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is a potentially deadly condition that can develop as a result of infection or illness in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes or when diabetes medications aren’t taken as directed. Some also refer to this as a “diabetic coma.”

What is the difference between diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome?

DKA typically evolves within a few hours, whereas HHNS is much slower and occurs over days to weeks, according to 2021 research . The two conditions look similar because of the hyperglycemia component of each condition. Knowing the symptoms of each can help you seek medical care as soon as possible.

How do you treat honk?

Treatment for HONK

Treatment for hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma will include fluids being given to the patient and insulin administered intravenously.

What causes honk?

Hperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) previously known as hyperosmolar nonketotic (HONK) coma is a syndrome characterized by extreme elevations in serum glucose concentrations, hyperosmolality and dehydration without significant ketosis (1,2).

Is HHS worse than DKA?

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is one of two serious metabolic derangements that occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a life-threatening emergency that, although less common than its counterpart, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), has a much higher mortality rate, reaching up to 5-10%.

Do Type 2 diabetics get ketoacidosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes that can be life-threatening. DKA is most common among people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA. DKA develops when your body doesn’t have enough insulin to allow blood sugar into your cells for use as energy.

At what sugar level is diabetic coma?

A diabetic coma could happen when your blood sugar gets too high — 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or more — causing you to become very dehydrated. It usually affects people with type 2 diabetes that isn’t well-controlled. It’s common among those who are elderly, chronically ill, and disabled.

What are the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis?

You may notice:

  • Excessive thirst.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Weakness or fatigue.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Fruity-scented breath.
  • Confusion.

Is blood sugar high or low with ketoacidosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL.

What organs are affected by ketoacidosis?

As DKA is life-threatening, it’s important to seek emergency care as soon as you suspect you’re suffering from the condition. Fluid loss from DKA can lead to kidney and organ damage, brain swelling that can eventually cause a coma, and fluid buildup in your lungs.

At what blood sugar level does ketoacidosis start?

Diabetes-related ketoacidosis is generally diagnosed if you have the following four conditions: Your blood glucose (sugar) level is above 250 mg/dL. (It’s possible for you to be in DKA even if your blood sugar is lower than 250. This is known as euglycemic diabetes-related ketoacidosis [euDKA], and it’s not as common.)