What is endemic pest?

Endemic pests: Occurring regularly and confined to a particular area or locality (eg) rice gall midge in Madurai dist.

What is a sporadic pest?

Sporadic pests: Pest occurs in isolated localities during some period. e.g. Coconut slug. caterpillar. Based on level of infestation. Pest epidemic: Sudden outbreak of a pest in a severe form in a region at a particular time e.g.

What are the categories of pests?

Pests can be broken into four main categories

  • Vertebrate Pests. Have a backbone. Examples: Rodents, birds, reptiles, and other mammals.
  • Invertebrate Pests. No backbone. Examples: Insets, spiders, ticks, slugs.
  • Weeds. Any plant growing out of place.
  • Diseases. Fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.

What are 3 categories of pest?

Arthropods – Insects, Mites, Ticks and Spiders 2. Vertebrates – Animals with backbones 3. Weeds 4. Pathogens – Disease-causing organisms 5.

What is ETL and EIL in entomology?

The economic threshold Level (ETL) is the population density at which control measures should be determined to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the Economic injury level (Fig. 2). EIL is the lowest pest population which will cause economic damage.

What are the 4 types of pesticides?

Types of Pesticide Ingredients

  • insecticides,
  • herbicides,
  • rodenticides, and.
  • fungicides.

What are the four main groups of pests?

Insects, Nematodes, Snails, & Slugs.

What is sub-economic in pest status?

A low level of injury may not cause enough damage to justify the time or expense of pest control operations. These sub-economic losses are simply part of the cost of doing business.

What is GEP in entomology?

General equilibrium position (GEP) The average density of a population over a long period of time, around which the pest population over a long period of time, around which the pest Page 5 population tends to fluctuate due to biotic and abiotic factors and in the absence of permanent environmental changes.

What is the difference between economic injury level and economic threshold?

The smallest number of insects (amount of injury) that will cause yield losses equal to the insect management costs. Economic threshold. The pest density at which management action should be taken to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level.”

What is pest economic threshold level?

Economic threshold: The pest density at which a control tactic must be implemented to avoid an economic loss. Action threshold: A pest or damage level at which control is initiated to avoid significant damage or loss of property. Usually, a lower level than the Economic threshold.

What is economic threshold in pest control?

The economic threshold (ET) is a decision point. It is the number of pest insects that need to be present for a control to be applied and keep the increasing pest population from reaching the EIL.

What will happen if the insect population level reached EIL?

Economic Injury Level

as the lowest population density that will cause economic damage. The EIL is the most basic of the decision rules; it is a theoretical value that, if actually attained by a pest population, will result in economic damage.

What does EIL mean how would you use EIL for decision making in insect pest management?

Economic-injury Level

Economic-injury Level (EIL) (Stern et al., 1959) – “The lowest population density of a pest that will cause economic damage; or the amount of pest injury which will justify the cost of control.”

What are the factors affecting the computation of economic threshold level?

The EIL is defined by five primary variables: the cost of management tactic per production unit, the price of commodity, the injury units per pest, the damage per unit injury, and the proportionate reduction of injury averted by the application of a tactic.