What is bronchial Malacia?

Bronchomalacia is a congenital problem that arises from diminished cartilage support of the smaller airways (below the trachea, or windpipe). The weakened cartilage usually collapses more easily during expiration and prolongs expiration, or prevents expectoration and causes trapping of secretions.

What causes airway malacia?

Airway malacia is a disease referring to an excessive collapse of the airway, which is caused by disproportionate laxity of the posterior wall (pars membranacea) or compromised cartilage integrity [1]. This concept was first proposed by Baxter and Dunbar in 1963.

What is the treatment for bronchomalacia?

Treatment may only be needed if signs and symptoms are present, of there is complete or near-complete collapse of the airway. Depending on severity, treatment options may include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), stenting, surgical correction (tracheobronchoplasty), and tracheostomy.

What is the main cause of bronchiectasis?

Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung condition in which the bronchi (tube-like passageways that transfer air within the lungs) get permanently damaged and widened. The most common causes of bronchiectasis are pneumonia, pertussis, tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterium.

Does bronchomalacia go away?


In infants, the cause is often a congenital defect in cartilaginous development which usually resolves spontaneously as the child reaches 6 months of age and older.

How is malacia diagnosed?

To date, flexible bronchofiberscope has been considered as the golden standard for the diagnosis of airway malacia in pediatrics [3]. To our knowledge, two types of airway malacia (i.e. primary and secondary airway malacia) are available according to the cause of the disease.

What causes narrowing of the trachea?

Most commonly tracheal stenosis is a result of an injury or illness such as: Trauma to the throat or chest. Infections (viral or bacterial), including tuberculosis. Autoimmune disorders such as sarcoidosis, papillomatosis, granulomatosis and amyloidosis.

What causes bronchomalacia in adults?

Primary bronchomalacia is due to a deficiency in the cartilaginous rings. Secondary bronchomalacia may occur by extrinsic compression from an enlarged vessel, a vascular ring or a bronchogenic cyst. Though uncommon, idiopathic (of unknown cause) tracheobronchomalacia has been described in older adults.

What are the symptoms of tracheobronchomalacia?


  • Wheezing when breathing out and a high-pitched noise when breathing in.
  • Coughing.
  • Difficulty clearing mucus and phlegm from the throat.
  • Repeated upper respiratory infections.
  • A bluish color to the skin surrounding the nose and mouth.

Is tracheobronchomalacia life threatening?

Is tracheobronchomalacia a life-threatening condition? Yes, TBM can be life-threatening because it doesn’t go away and gets worse over time.

What is bronchomalacia and tracheomalacia?

The trachea and bronchi are made of incomplete rings of cartilage, which maintains their architecture and stability during respiration. Tracheomalacia and/or bronchomalacia are conditions in which the airways are collapsible and do not allow sufficient oxygenation of the lungs.

How long is surgery for Tracheobronchomalacia?

Preoperative comorbidities included respiratory conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (37%), asthma (23%), and Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (8%). Notably, GERD was comorbidity present in 48% of patients. The operation time averaged 373 minutes (SD±93; range, 180–635 minutes).

What prevents trachea from collapsing?

Detailed Solution

The trachea is supported by a series of cartilaginous rings that prevent it from collapsing.

Can a collapsed trachea get better?

Unfortunately, there is no way to cure a dog’s collapsing trachea.

How much force does it take to collapse a trachea?

Compression of the trachea requires significantly more force: 33 pounds of pressure for occlusion and 35 pounds to fracture tracheal cartilage. Strangulation can be fatal in as little as four to five minutes.

Can a dog recover from a collapsed trachea?

At this time there is no known prevention for tracheal collapse, although reducing weight or exposure to airway irritants such as smoke may help. About 70% of dogs that are treated with medical management alone will show some improvement. About 75% of dogs improve after surgical placement of rings.

How long can a dog live with collapsing trachea?

A dog with a collapsing trachea will survive for up to two years after being diagnosed. A dog’s survival with this disease can be doubled to 4 years or more with surgical operations. You can help a dog live a longer life by taking extra precautions to help them treat their symptoms.

Can a dog live a long life with a collapsed trachea?

But in truth, many dogs live a good life with a collapsed trachea (windpipe) for years. Only at its most severe stage is the condition life-threatening. Although there’s no cure, a collapsed trachea can be managed with medication, lifestyle adjustments and sometimes surgery.

How do you fix a dog’s collapsed trachea?

Most dogs with tracheal collapse can be treated with medications and preventative care, such as weight loss, using a harness for walks, and avoiding airway irritants.
Treatment of Tracheal Collapse in Dogs

  1. Antibiotics.
  2. Cough suppressants.
  3. Steroids (oral and inhalant using an aerodawg device)
  4. Bronchodilators.
  5. Sedatives.

How serious is a collapsed trachea in dogs?

The condition causes mild to severe obstruction of a dog’s airway that results in coughing and other symptoms. Tracheal collapse can progress to become life-threatening, so it’s important to get your dog checked out by a vet right away if you suspect they are showing symptoms of a collapsed trachea.

What do you feed a dog with a collapsed trachea?

Solid Gold Fit and Fabulous Weight Control Dog Food

For dogs with limited exercise tolerance and tracheal collapse, a healthy diet goes a long way towards keeping their weight in check and their breathing optimal. One low-fat option is Solid Gold’s Fit & Fabulous dry dog food.

What does a dog with tracheal collapse sound like?

In this VETgirl vlog, check out the classic sound of a dog with tracheal collapse. Often described as a “honking” cough, this abnormality is commonly seen in Yorkshire terriers, Pomeranians, Chihuahuas, miniature poodles, and Maltese dogs.

When is it time to put a dog down with a collapsed trachea?

When To Say Goodbye and Euthanize A Dog With Tracheal Collapse

  1. Severe impact to the heart or lungs.
  2. Frequent coughing throughout the day that cannot be managed.
  3. No longer being able to manage their symptoms with medication.
  4. Frequent respiratory distress.
  5. Inability to exercise without respiratory distress.