What is a epidemiological study?

Epidemiologic studies are the foundation for disease control and prevention through tracking the prevalence of the disease, characterizing the natural history, and identifying determinants or causes of the disease. . It defines risk factors for a disease and targets for preventive medicine.

What are examples of epidemiological studies?

The four types of epidemiologic studies commonly used in radiation research are cluster, ecologic, case-control, and cohort studies.



Confounding is a potential issue with all epidemiologic studies discussed here.

  • Cluster Studies. …
  • Ecologic Studies. …
  • Case-Control Studies. …
  • Cohort Studies.


What are the 3 major types of epidemiologic studies?

Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000).

How do you do an epidemiological study?

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Once we've decided on a study type we need to do the study collect. And analyze the data using a suitable statistical. Method then we need to interpret the results to make sense of it all and finally.

What is an example of an ecological study?

Examples of the use of ecological studies include: Correlating population disease rates with factors of interest, such as healthcare use. Demonstrating changes in mortality over time (time series) Comparing the prevalence of a disease between different regions at a single point in time (geographical studies)

How is an epidemiologic study different from a clinical trial?

Thus, the data on humans generally fall into one of two categories: clinical data, which describe the effects of specific agents on certain individuals, and epidemiological data, which reveal patterns of disease or death in groups of humans exposed to single agents or to a variety of substances.

What are the two major types of epidemiological studies?

Epidemiologists conduct two main types of analytic studies: experimental and observational. Experimental studies use a randomized selection process. A process based on chance is used to assign study subjects to different exposure groups.

What is an epidemiology study design?

The basic epidemiological study designs are cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies. Cross-sectional studies provide a snapshot of a population by determining both exposures and outcomes at one time point.

What is correlational study in epidemiology?

Correlational studies, better known as observational studies in epidemiology, are used to examine event exposure, disease prevalence and risk factors in a population (Elwood, 2007). In eHealth, the exposure typically refers to the use of an eHealth system by a population of subjects in a given setting.

How do you know if a study is ecological?

An ecological study is an observational study defined by the level at which data are analysed, namely at the population or group level, rather than individual level. Ecological studies are often used to measure prevalence and incidence of disease, particularly when disease is rare.

Is an ecological study descriptive or analytical?

Ecological studies can either be descriptive, for example, exploring variation between populations, or consider associations such as the example above.

What do you mean by ecological studies?

Listen to pronunciation. (EE-kuh-LAH-jih-kul STUH-dee) A study that compares large groups of people instead of individuals for differences in things such as cancer rates. The groups can differ by location (for example, city, county, or country).

Is ecological study a cross-sectional?

Ecological or correlational studies share the central characteristic of cross-sectional studies, since, regarding temporality, both explanatory and explained variables are collected simultaneously. They are known as “ecological” as investigations of this type use geographical areas to define the units of analysis.

Is an ecological study longitudinal?

Types of ecological studies



Longitudinal; A population is monitored to assess changes in disease over time. Again, confounding factors are often included in analysis. Migration; Data of migrant populations are collected and analysed. The unit of interest is neither time nor place, but population type.

Is an ecological study a case control study?

Neither a case study nor a case series would include a comparison group. Ecological Study – A study in which at least one variable, either exposure or the outcome, is measured at the group (not individual) level.

Why are correlational studies also called ecologic studies?

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Correlational studies, also called ecological studies, use grouped population data to relate exposure patterns of whole populations to disease incidence or mortality rates for whole populations.

What is the main difference between an experiment and a correlational study?

In an experimental design, you manipulate an independent variable and measure its effect on a dependent variable. Other variables are controlled so they can’t impact the results. In a correlational design, you measure variables without manipulating any of them.

How do you tell if a study is experimental or observational?

An observational study observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses. Data is collected. Nothing is influenced by the researcher. An experiment deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals to measure their responses.

What type of research is a correlational study?

Correlational research refers to a non-experimental research method which studies the relationship between two variables with the help of statistical analysis. Correlational research design does not study the effects of extraneous variables on the variables under study.