What happens if the spinal accessory nerve is damaged?

The spinal accessory nerve originates in the brain and enables motion in the trapezius and sternomastoid muscles in the neck. A spinal accessory nerve injury can be caused by trauma or damage during surgery, resulting in shoulder pain, “winging” of the shoulder blades and weakness of the trapezius muscle.

What are the symptoms of spinal accessory nerve damage?

Patients with spinal accessory nerve palsy generally present with dull posterior shoulder pain, drooping of the shoulder, forward elevation and abduction weakness, and an inability to shrug the affected shoulder (Fig. 47.5). Visible atrophy of the trapezius muscle is usually present.

What is the function of spinal accessory nerve?

The spinal component of the accessory nerve provides motor control of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The trapezius muscle controls the action of shrugging the shoulders, and the sternocleidomastoid the action of turning the head.

Where is the spinal accessory nerve particularly at risk of damage?

Cranial nerve XI, the spinal accessory nerve (SAN), is vulnerable to injury, owing to its long and superficial course in the posterior cervical neck. An important landmark in the neck, the SAN is considered to contribute most motor innervation to the trapezius muscle.

How long does it take for spinal accessory nerve to heal?

Initial treatment consists of rest from activities that pro- duce symptoms and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications to help reduce inflammation and pain. The nerve usually recovers spontaneously, although this may take up to 6 months.

How do you check spinal nerve accessory?

Examination of the accessory nerve involves assessing two muscles: the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid. When assessing the trapezius, ask the patient to shrug their shoulders, then apply resistance. Accessory nerve weakness will present with weak or no resistance to your downward force.

What would happen if there were nerve damage to the sternocleidomastoid?

Interruption of the nerve supply to the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in an asymmetric neckline, while weakness of the trapezius muscle can produce a drooping shoulder, winged scapula, and a weakness of forward elevation of the shoulder.

What muscle does the spinal accessory nerve pass through?

The spinal accessory nerve is a purely motor entity. It innervates both the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.

Is spinal accessory nerve motor or sensory?

motor nerve

The spinal accessory nerve is the eleventh cranial nerve. It is a motor nerve (somatic motor) innervating two muscles—the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.

How fast do nerves regrow?

Regeneration time depends on how seriously your nerve was injured and the type of injury that you sustained. If your nerve is bruised or traumatized but is not cut, it should recover over 6-12 weeks. A nerve that is cut will grow at 1mm per day, after about a 4 week period of ‘rest’ following your injury.

What happens if cranial nerve 11 is damaged?

Supranuclear lesions of the eleventh nerve cause moderate, often transient, impairment of function of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, due to the bilateral innervation. In the spinal cord the nuclei can be involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, syringomyelia, polio, and intraspinal tumors.

What happens when cranial nerve 12 is damaged?

The hypoglossal nerve can be damaged at the hypoglossal nucleus (nuclear), above the hypoglossal nucleus (supranuclear), or interrupted at the motor axons (infranuclear). Such damage causes paralysis, fasciculations (as noted by a scalloped appearance of the tongue), and eventual atrophy of the tongue muscles.

What Innervates the tongue?

Taste to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is achieved through innervation from the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the facial nerve (CN VII). General sensation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is by innervation from the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3).

What controls the tongue?

The hypoglossal nerve enables tongue movement. It controls the hyoglossus, intrinsic, genioglossus and styloglossus muscles. These muscles help you speak, swallow and move substances around in your mouth.

What happens if the vagus nerve is damaged?

If the vagus nerve becomes damaged by physical trauma or the growth of a tumor, it may cause digestive symptoms, or hoarseness, paralysis of the vocal cords and slowed heart rate.

How do I know if my vagus nerve is damaged?

Potential symptoms of damage to the vagus nerve include:

  1. difficulty speaking.
  2. loss or change of voice.
  3. difficulty swallowing.
  4. loss of the gag reflex.
  5. low blood pressure.
  6. slow heart rate.
  7. changes in the digestive process.
  8. nausea or vomiting.

How does a vagus nerve get damaged?

The vagus nerve and its branches can be damaged by diseases, such as diabetes, or by surgery to the stomach or small intestine.

How do they diagnose vagus nerve damage?

The vagus nerves primarily receive blood flow through branches of the external carotid artery but can involve the internal carotid and subclavian arteries. This blood flow is examined by carotid duplex ultrasound scanning.

What kind of doctor do you see for vagus nerve damage?

A neurologist is an expert in diagnosing and treating problems of your brain, spinal cord and nerves, including these 8 neurological symptoms and disorders. A neurologist treats disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord and nerves.

How is vagus nerve damage treated?

If gastroparesis is related to an injury of the vagus nerve, patients may benefit from a procedure called pyloroplasty. This procedure widens and relaxes the valve separating the stomach from the upper part of the small intestine, called the pyloric valve. This allows the stomach to empty more quickly.

What side of the neck is the vagus nerve on?

right side

The Vagus Nerves
The vagus nerve is also noted as being the tenth cranial nerve (designated as CN X). The vagus nerve is actually a set of two nerves, a vagus nerve right side of the neck and a vagus nerve left side of the neck.

Can neck problems cause vagus nerve problems?

Based on research results and clinical experience, cervical region tightness can be considered to cause stomach problems through the vagal nerve, and soft tissue relaxation of the cervical region can be a promising treatment method for stomach symptoms.

Does the vagus nerve cause anxiety?

Although this vagal tone is also connected to inflammation, immune system, metabolism and emotional regulation, which is essential to our body. This means the vagus nerve has been associated with mental health conditions, such as anxiety.