What are the three groups of Epaxial back muscles?

Epaxial muscles include other (dorsal) muscles associated with the vertebrae, ribs, and base of the skull. In humans, the erector spinae, the transversospinales (including the multifidus, semispinalis and rotatores), the splenius and suboccipital muscles are the only epaxial muscles.

What are the 3 major muscle groups of the back?

They are the spinalis, iliocostalis, and longissimus. Each of these muscles is divided into three parts that correspond to the part of the back where they’re located.

What are the intrinsic muscles of the back?

Intrinsic Back Muscles: Overview

The intrinsic back muscles are also referred to as primary back muscles. These muscles are also known as erector spinae (spinal erectors) or erector trunci (truncal erectors) since they specifically describe the primary function: erection of the spine or the torso.

What are the superficial back muscles?

The superficial back muscles consist of the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, and latissimus dorsi muscles (Figure 1-1A; Table 1-1).

What are the 3 primary divisions of the erector spinae?

The erector spinae are divided into three groups, from medial to lateral: Spinalis muscles. Longissimus muscles. Iliocostalis muscles.

What is the largest muscle group of the back?

The Latissimus Dorsi muscles (also known as the Lats) are the largest muscles of the back.

What are the rhomboid muscles?

The rhomboids are a collective group of muscles formed by the rhomboid major and minor. The rhomboids are important in upper limb movement and stability of both the shoulder girdle and scapula. Both rhomboids receive innervation from the dorsal scapular nerve and supplied by the dorsal scapular artery.

What are the intrinsic muscles?

The intrinsic muscle groups consist of smaller muscles solely located within the various hand osseofascial compartments within the anatomic confines of the wrist (proximally) and phalanges (distally). The intrinsics are important for various hand functions, such as pinch and grip strength.

What are extrinsic and intrinsic muscles?

The muscles of the hand can be subdivided into two groups: the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle groups. The extrinsic muscle groups are the long flexors and extensors. They are called extrinsic because the muscle belly is located on the forearm. The intrinsic group are the smaller muscles located within the hand itself.

What Innervates extrinsic back muscles?

All the extrinsic back muscles are innervated by the anterior(ventral) rami of the cervical spinal nerves, except for the trapezius muscle which receives its supply from the accessory nerve (CN XI).

Whats the lower back muscle called?

erector spinae

They include the large muscles in the lower back (erector spinae), which help hold up the spine, and gluteal muscles. Flexor muscles. Attached to the front of the spine, these muscles include the abdominal muscles. They allow us to flex, bend forward, lift and arch the lower back.

What muscles are in the Transversospinalis group?

Transversospinales muscle group is a deep group of back muscles that lies deep to the Erector Spinae. It consists of 3 major subgroups: semispinalis, multifidus and rotatores.

What are lumbar paraspinal muscles?

The paraspinal muscles, sometimes called the erector spinae, are three muscle groups that support your back. You use them every time you lean to one side, arch your back, bend forward, or twist your torso.

Where are paraspinal muscles?

The paraspinal muscles are the “action” muscles of the back. When they work, the result is the obvious movement of your spine. They course down your back and spine and help to move your spine into extension, rotation, and side bending.

Where is the paraspinal region?

lumbar spine

The paraspinal musculature comprises muscle groups adjacent to the vertebrae and is responsible for the movement and stabilization of the spine. In the lumbar spine, these muscles include the multifidus (MF), erector spinae (ES), interspinales, intertransversarii, psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum13,14.

What is thoracolumbar fascia?

The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) is a girdling structure consisting of several aponeurotic and fascial layers that separates the paraspinal muscles from the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall.

What muscles are under thoracolumbar fascia?

The fascia houses the quadratus lumborum, transversospinalis, spinal erectors (erector spinae) and multifidus muscles and their tendons, among other intrinsic muscles of the posterior thoracic and lumbar regions.

What Innervates the thoracolumbar fascia?

The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) is innervated from both the dorsal and ventral rami, part of the dorsal horn (posterior grey column). The dorsal ramus innervates the expaxial muscles posterior to the vertebral septum, and the ventral ramus innervates the hypaxial muscles anterior to it.

Where is lumbosacral?

Of or relating to or near the small of the back and the back part of the pelvis between the hips. The lumbosacral junction consist of the L5 vertebral body articulating with the first sacral vertebral body. In the seated position the lumbosacral discs are loaded three times more than standing.

Where is L2 3 in the spine?

lumbar spine

TheFacet L2-L3 disc is about 2 inches above the waist. Problems at the L2-L3 segment of the lumbar spine commonly refer to pain in the spine’s mid or lower portions.

What type of joint is lumbosacral joint?

Lumbosacral joint

Type Anterior intervertebral joint: symphysis Facet joints: synovial plane joints
Articular surfaces Anterior intervertebral joint: Inferior surface of L5 vertebral body, superior surface of S1 vertebral body Facet joints: superior articular processes of the S1, inferior articular processes of L5

Is lumbar and lumbosacral the same?

As adjectives the difference between lumbar and lumbosacral

is that lumbar is related to the lower back or loin while lumbosacral is of or pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions of the back; the small of the back and the back portion of the pelvis.

Where is L1 L2 and L3 on the spine?

lumbar spine

The lumbar spine makes up the the lower end of the spinal column. It consists of 5 lumbar vertebra that are numbered 1 through 5 from top to bottom i.e. L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5. The L5 vertebra is connected to the top of the sacrum (named the S1 segment) through an intervertebral disc.

What is radiculopathy lumbosacral region?

Lumbar radiculopathy refers to disease involving the lumbar spinal nerve root. This can manifest as pain, numbness, or weakness of the buttock and leg. Sciatica is the term often used by laypeople. Lumbar radiculopathy is typically caused by a compression of the spinal nerve root.

What is L4 & L5?

The L4 and L5 are the two lowest vertebrae of the lumbar spine. Together with the intervertebral disc, joints, nerves, and soft tissues, the L4-L5 spinal motion segment provides a variety of functions, including supporting the upper body and allowing trunk motion in multiple directions.

What is L3 and L4 in spine?

The L3-L4 spinal motion segment, positioned in the middle of the lumbar spine, plays an important role in supporting the weight of the torso and protecting the cauda equina (nerves that descend from the spinal cord).

What is bulging disc L4 and L5?

A lumbar bulging disc occurs in the lower levels of the spine typically at L4-5 and L5-S1. It may be associated with a disc herniation. The bulging disc is a desiccation of the disc that may occur with the aging process or with injury. The L4-5 and L5-S1 discs are the most commonly affected.