What are the basic parts of the neuron and what is their function?

Nervous system cells are called neurons. They have three distinct parts, including a cell body, axon, and dendrites. These parts help them to send and receive chemical and electrical signals.

What are the functions of the three parts of a neuron?

Explanation: Neurons (nerve cells) have three parts that carry out the functions of communication and integration: dendrites, axons, and axon terminals. They have a fourth part the cell body or soma, which carries out the basic life processes of neurons.

What are the basics of neurons?

Neurons have three basic parts: a cell body and two extensions called an axon (5) and a dendrite (3). Within the cell body is a nucleus (2), which controls the cell’s activities and contains the cell’s genetic material. The axon looks like a long tail and transmits messages from the cell.

What is the function of the dendrites in a neuron?

Nerve cells (neurons) have extensive processes called dendrites. These occupy a large surface area of a neuron. They receive many signals from other neurons and contain specialized proteins that receive, process, and transfer these to the cell body.

What is the function of axon?

axon, also called nerve fibre, portion of a nerve cell (neuron) that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body. A neuron typically has one axon that connects it with other neurons or with muscle or gland cells. Some axons may be quite long, reaching, for example, from the spinal cord down to a toe.

What are the parts of neuron?

All neurons have three different parts – dendrites, cell body and axon. The neuron structure is specially adapted to carry messages over large distances in the body quickly in the form of electrical signals.

What are dendrites and axons?

Neurons have specialized projections called dendrites and axons. Dendrites bring information to the cell body and axons take information away from the cell body. Information from one neuron flows to another neuron across a synapse. The synapse contains a small gap separating neurons.

What is the basic unit of the nervous system?

The basic unit of the nervous system is a nerve cell, or neuron. The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons.

What is the function of the nucleus in a neuron?

The Nucleus of a neuron is an oval shaped membrane-bound structure found in the soma or body of the neuron. It contains the nucleolus and chromosomes, necessary for the coded production of proteins within the cell.

What is the function of the axon terminal in a neuron?

Each terminal holds a synapse where neurotransmitters send their messages and where messages are received. Simply put, axons allow nerve cells to send electrical and chemical messages to other nerve, gland, and muscle cells using this internal communication process.