What are common adverse reactions to TB treatment modalities?

Adverse Events

  • Unexplained loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, brown urine*, or jaundice (yellowing of skin or eyes)
  • Persistent tingling, numbness, or burning of hands or feet.
  • Persistent weakness, fatigue, fever, or abdominal tenderness.
  • Easy bruising or bleeding.
  • Blurred vision or changed vision.

What is the most common adverse effect of tuberculosis drugs?

The main side effects are stomach upsets and discomfort, nausea and loss of appetite. Vomiting and diarrhoea may occur although this is rare. Mild flushing, itchiness, skin and a pale rash are often brief side effects, and are not reasons to stop your TB treatment.

What are the side effects of TB treatment?

Side Effects of Treatment

  • Fever for 3 or more days.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Itchiness or a rash.
  • Nausea, vomiting, or no appetite.
  • Yellowish skin or eyes.
  • Dark or brown urine.
  • Tingling, burning, or numbness of the hands and feet.
  • Fatigue.

What is a common adverse reaction of isoniazid?

Common side effects may include: numbness, tingling, or burning pain in your hands or feet; nausea, vomiting, upset stomach; or. abnormal liver function tests.

What are the adverse effects of isoniazid INH )?

Side Effects

  • Clumsiness or unsteadiness.
  • nausea or vomiting.
  • numbness, tingling, burning, or pain in hands and feet.
  • yellow eyes or skin.

What is the most common side effect of rifampin?

Upset stomach, heartburn, nausea, menstrual changes, or headache may occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, inform your doctor promptly. This medication may cause urine, sweat, saliva, or tears to change color (yellow, orange, red, or brown).

What are the side effects of Fixcom 4?

Hypersensitivity reactions occur infrequently and include skin eruptions (including erythema multiforme), fever and vasculitis. Other adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, pellagra, purpura, hyperglycemia, lupus-like syndrome, urinary retention and gynecomastia.

What are side effects of ethambutol?

Headache, loss of appetite, upset stomach, or nausea/vomiting may occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

What is a boosted reaction?

If the second test is positive, the individual has a “boosted” reaction and is considered to have a latent TB infection once active TB is excluded. If the second test is negative, the individual should be considered uninfected.

What are the side effects of aminophylline?

Side Effects

  • Chest pain or discomfort.
  • fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat.
  • increase in urine volume.
  • lightheadedness.
  • persistent vomiting.
  • pounding or rapid pulse.
  • shakiness.

What are the common adverse effects of gentamicin?

Side Effects

  • Abdominal or stomach cramps or pain.
  • agitation.
  • back pain.
  • black, tarry stools.
  • blood in the urine.
  • blurred or double vision.
  • burning, numbness, tingling, or painful sensations.
  • change in frequency of urination or amount of urine.

What is INH toxicity?

The ingestion of toxic amounts of isoniazid causes recurrent seizures, profound metabolic acidosis, coma and even death. In adults, toxicity can occur with the acute ingestion of as little as 1.5 g of isoniazid. Doses larger than 30 mg per kg often produce seizures.

What are the black box warnings of INH?

Isoniazid is contraindicated in patients who develop severe hypersensitivity reactions, including drug- induced hepatitis; previous isoniazid-associated hepatic injury; severe adverse reactions to isoniazid such as drug fever, chills, arthritis; and acute liver disease of any etiology. See the boxed warning.

Is pyrazinamide hepatotoxic?

While isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide are known to cause hepatotoxicity, ethambutol and streptomycin are considered not to be hepatotoxic.

Is ethambutol bacteriostatic or bactericidal?

Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis.

What is bactericidal effect?

Definition of Bacteriostatic/Bactericidal Activity. The definitions of “bacteriostatic” and “bactericidal” appear to be straightforward: “bacteriostatic” means that the agent prevents the growth of bacteria (i.e., it keeps them in the stationary phase of growth), and “bactericidal” means that it kills bacteria.

What are the side effects of streptomycin?

Common side effects of Streptomycin include:

  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • stomach upset,
  • loss of appetite,
  • spinning sensation (vertigo),
  • injection site reactions (pain, irritation, and redness),
  • tingling or prickling sensation in the face,
  • rash,

When is ethambutol contraindicated?

Ethambutol is contraindicated in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to this drug, in patients with known optic neuritis, in patients who are unable to appreciate and report visual side effects or changes in vision (e.g., young children, unconscious patients.

What is ethambutol toxicity?

Ethambutol is an antimicrobial agent used frequently to treat tuberculosis. The most commonly recognized toxic effect of ethambutol is optic neuropathy, which generally is considered uncommon and reversible in medical literature.

Why was ethambutol discontinued?

Based on the results of the assay, EMB was discontinued in the MTBDRplus group after confirmation that the M. tuberculosis isolate was susceptible to isoniazid and rifampin.

What are the contraindications of rifampin?

Who should not take RIFAMPIN?

  • diabetes.
  • porphyria.
  • hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that affects the kidney and the blood.
  • decreased blood-clotting from low vitamin K.
  • alcoholism.
  • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a type of blood disorder.
  • liver problems.
  • abnormal liver function tests.

What are side effects of rifampin?

Rifampin may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

  • temporary discoloration (yellow, reddish-orange, or brown color) of your skin, teeth, saliva, urine, stool, sweat, and tears)
  • itching.
  • flushing.
  • headache.
  • drowsiness.
  • dizziness.
  • lack of coordination.

What is the most serious complication of rifampin?

A severe and sometimes deadly reaction has happened. Most of the time, this reaction has signs like fever, rash, or swollen glands with problems in body organs like the liver, kidney, blood, heart, muscles and joints, or lungs. If you have questions, talk with the doctor. Liver problems have happened with rifampin.

Which drug is contraindicated in active tuberculosis?

The following antituberculosis drugs are contraindicated in pregnant women: Streptomycin. Kanamycin. Amikacin.

What are the complications of tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis complications include:

  • Spinal pain. Back pain and stiffness are common complications of tuberculosis.
  • Joint damage. …
  • Swelling of the membranes that cover your brain (meningitis). …
  • Liver or kidney problems. …
  • Heart disorders.

Which agents are useful for management of tuberculosis?

The recommended initial phase for the treatment of tuberculosis consists of rifampin 10 mg/kg (maximum 600 mg), isoniazid 5 mg/kg (maximum 300 mg), pyrazinamide 15–30 mg/kg (maximum 2 g), and ethambutol 15–20 mg/kg (maximum 1.6 g) given daily for 8 weeks, followed by a continuation phase of isoniazid 15 mg/kg (maximum …