Is tetracaine an amide or ester?

Overview

Overview of local anesthetics
Agents
Ester group anesthetics Short-acting (e.g., procaine, chloroprocaine, benzocaine)
Long-acting (e.g., tetracaine)
Amide type anesthetics Intermediate-acting (e.g., lidocaine, prilocaine, mepivacaine)

Is tetracaine an amine?

Tetracaine is an amino-ester class local anesthetic.

Which local anesthetics are esters?

Ester local anaesthetics include:

  • Benzocaine.
  • Chloroprocaine.
  • Cocaine.
  • Procaine.
  • Proparacaine.
  • Tetracaine.
  • Amylocaine.
  • Oxybuprocaine.

What are amide anesthetics?

Introduction. The amide local anesthetics including lidocaine, bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used for pain control during minor surgery or invasive procedures such as biopsies, small excisions or dental work.

What is an amide vs ester?

Amides are extremely stable in solution, while esters are unstable. The amino-esters are hydrolyzed in plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase, whereas the amide compounds undergo enzymatic degradation in the liver and excretion in the urine.

Is tetracaine a vasoconstrictor?

Tetracaine is a slow-onset, potent, and intermediate- to long-acting ester-type local anesthetic. Even longer duration of action can be achieved when tetracaine is administered along with a vasoconstrictor such as epinephrine.

Is bupivacaine an ester or amide?

There are 2 classes of local anesthetics, amides and esters. Esters include benzocaine, chloroprocaine, cocaine, procaine, proparacaine, and tetracaine. The amides include articaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, dibucaine, etidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, ropivacaine, and finally, lidocaine.

Where are amide local anesthetics metabolized?

Amide-type anesthetics are metabolized by the liver and should be carefully used in patients with liver and/or kidney impairments. In contrast, examples of esters include procaine, chloroprocaine, tetracaine and benzocaine.

Is Septocaine an amide or ester?

Septocaine is actually a hybrid of both an amide and an ester class anesthetic because of the presence of both an amide and an ester intermediate chain in its chemical composition.

What drugs are amides?

The amides commonly used include lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and articaine.

Is lignocaine an amide or ester?

The commonly used amide LAs include lidocaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine, mepivacaine, and outside the United States, levobupivacaine. Articaine is an amide LA used primarily in dentistry.

Is Proparacaine an amide or ester?

Proparacaine (2.3. 31) is a topical anesthetic drug of the amino ester group used as a local or spinal anesthetic for surface anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia, or regional nerve block.

Is Xylocaine an amide?

Amide local anesthetics do not undergo metabolism to PABA, and therefore hypersensitivity to amide local anesthetics is rare.
Table 1. Comparison of Local Anesthetics.

Injectable Prescription Local Anesthetics Lidocaine
Xylocaine ®
Some Formulations May Contain: x
x
x•#

Is benzocaine an ester?

Benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate) is a water-insoluble ester-type local anesthetic agent that is mainly useful for topical application.

Is Novocaine an ester?

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.

Is procaine an ester?

Procaine is an ester of para-aminobenzoic acid and was first synthesized in 1904 by Einhorn. Until 1943 it was the only anaesthetic available. It is quickly and locally metabolized by an esterase, giving rise to the acid itself, which may act as an allergen.

Is Articaine an amide?

Articaine is an intermediate-potency, short-acting amide local anesthetic with a fast metabolism due to an ester group in its structure.

Is bupivacaine an acid or base?

The authors examined the outcome of imposed acid-base derangement on cardiovascular effects and myocardial and whole body pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine, a weak base, and thiopental, a weak acid.

Does Novocaine contain epinephrine?

These anesthetics come in two forms, those with or without epinephrine (adrenaline). Epinephrine was added to the first injectable local anesthetic (cocaine) in 1903 to establish vasoconstriction to slow vascular uptake.

Is epinephrine used in dentistry?

Articaine and epinephrine combination injection is used to numb the mouth before a dental procedure. This medicine is to be given by or under the direct supervision of your dentist. This product is available in the following dosage forms: Solution.

Is epinephrine a vasoconstrictor?

In medicine epinephrine is used chiefly as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, and as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma.

Does lidocaine contain epinephrine?

Xylocaine (lidocaine) MPF with Epinephrine is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Each mL contains lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine, with 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant and 0.2 mg citric acid as a stabilizer.

Can you use lidocaine with epinephrine on the face?

Conclusions: The vascularity of different anatomical areas may account for blood flow differences following injection with saline and lidocaine. Incisions should be delayed for 10 min in the forearm and 8 min in the face following lidocaine+epinephrine injection to allow maximal benefit to take effect.

What is the difference between lidocaine and epinephrine?

Epinephrine, the vasoconstrictor used with lidocaine, acts mainly on arterioles, whereas the vasoconstrictor felypressin acts mainly on venules. The analgesic effect is stronger with epinephrine-added lidocaine, which has a strong vasoconstrictor action.