Is Nitroglycerin an Inotrope?

The positive inotropic effect of nitroglycerin is associated with the two processes, catecholamine release from sympathetic nerve terminals and blockade of phosphodiesterase activity.

Which drugs are inotropes?

The principal inotropic agents are dopamine, dobutamine, inamrinone (formerly amrinone), milrinone, dopexamine, and digoxin. In patients with hypotension who present with CHF, dopamine and dobutamine usually are employed.

What are examples of inotropes?

The most commonly used inotropes are the catecholamines; these can be endogenous (eg, adrenaline, noradrenaline)or synthetic (eg, dobutamine, isoprenaline). These medicines act on the sympathetic nervous system.

What are names of inotropes?


  • Amrinone.
  • Digoxin.
  • Dobutamine.
  • Dopamine.
  • Inamrinone.
  • Intropin.
  • Lanoxin.
  • Milrinone.

What are positive inotropes?

Positive inotropes increase the strength of cardiac muscle contraction by increasing the quantity of intracellular calcium available for binding by muscle proteins, by increasing the sensitivity of contractile proteins to calcium, or a combination of both (eg, pimobendan).

Is digoxin an inotrope?

For example, one kind of positive inotrope called digoxin strengthens the force of the heartbeat by increasing the amount of calcium in the heart’s cells. (Calcium stimulates the heart to contract.) When the medicine reaches the heart muscle, it binds to sodium and potassium receptors.

Is epinephrine an inotrope?

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are catecholamines with inotropic properties, but are generally classified as vasopressors due to their potent vasoconstrictive effects. Using combinations of agents in moderate doses may be potentially more effective than maximal doses of an individual medication.

Is digoxin a beta blocker?

Digoxin and metoprolol belong to different drug classes. Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside and metoprolol is a beta-blocker.

Is glucagon a positive inotrope?

Soon after experimental studies showed its positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, glucagon was given to patients. In a pioneer study, its cardiovascular effects in humans were investigated during diagnostic cardiac catheterization.

Are beta-blockers positive inotropic?

It should be mentioned that even a low dosage of beta-blockers exert negative inotropic effects and may lead to a deterioration of hemodynamics and heart failure symptoms in patients with heart failure.

Is digoxin a positive Dromotropic?

Finally, digoxin has a negative dromotropic effect on the atrioventricular node, leading to an increase in refractory periods and nodal conduction time.

Is metoprolol a positive Inotrope?

Negative inotropic agents

While negative inotropism may precipitate or exacerbate heart failure, certain beta blockers (e.g. carvedilol, bisoprolol and metoprolol) have been believed to reduce morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure.

Which drug for heart failure is a common positive Inotrope?

Digoxin is the only oral positive inotropic agent available for long-term ambulatory use in the United States.

Is norepinephrine an Inotrope?

Noradrenaline. Noradrenaline (also known as norepinephrine) is an inotrope and a vasopressor (Levick, 2003).

What type of inotropic drug is digoxin?

Digoxin is a positive inotropic and negative chronotropic drug 7, meaning that it increases the force of the heartbeat and decreases the heart rate. The decrease in heart rate is particularly useful in cases of atrial fibrillation, a condition characterized by a fast and irregular heartbeat.

Are vasopressors inotropes?

Vasopressors are a powerful class of drugs that induce vasoconstriction and thereby elevate mean arterial pressure (MAP). Vasopressors differ from inotropes, which increase cardiac contractility; however, many drugs have both vasopressor and inotropic effects.

Is epinephrine a vasopressor?

Inotropic and vasopressor agents are a mainstay of resuscitation therapy during cardiopulmonary arrest. Epinephrine, with its potent vasopressor and inotropic properties, can rapidly increase diastolic blood pressure to facilitate coronary perfusion and help restore organized myocardial contractility.

Is epinephrine a vasoconstrictor?

In medicine epinephrine is used chiefly as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, and as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma.

Is phenylephrine a Inotrope?

In the presence of propranolol, phenylephrine caused a significant positive inotropic effect which was significantly less in the newborn than in the adult.

What drugs are vasopressors?

Vasopressors are a group of medicines that contract (tighten) blood vessels and raise blood pressure.
Medicines — including synthetic hormones — that are used as vasopressors include:

  • Norepinephrine.
  • Epinephrine.
  • Vasopressin (Vasostrict)
  • Dopamine.
  • Phenylephrine.
  • Dobutamine.

Is Ephedrine an Inotrope?

Ephedrine increases arterial blood pressure and has a positive inotropic effect. Because it does not have detrimental effects on uterine blood flow in animal models, ephedrine became widely used as a pressor in hypotensive pregnant patients.

Is dobutamine a Inotrope?

Dobutamine can be used as temporary intravenous inotropic support until resolution of the acute inducing factors or the patient receives more definitive treatment, such as coronary revascularization, mechanical circulatory support, or heart transplant.

How is milrinone an Inotrope?

Milrinone inhibits the action of phosphodiesterase in the myocyte, leading to increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcium. It is an inotropic agent that acts downstream from the β-adrenergic receptor.