How do plants protect themselves from fungi?

The entry ports for some of these dangerous fungi are small pores, the stomata, which are found in large numbers on the plant leaves. With the help of specialised guard cells, which flank each stomatal pore, plants can change the opening width of the pores and close them completely.

How do plants protect themselves from being eaten?

To keep small predators at bay, many plants have a mat of fine hairs on the surface of their leaves. To deter larger animals some plants have sharp spines or thorns, while others have leaves that sting or are bitter to taste.

How do plants deal with predators?

Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against herbivores. These defenses include mechanical protections on the surface of the plant, production of complex polymers that reduce plant digestibility to animals, and the production of toxins that kill or repel herbivores.

How do plants avoid being eaten by herbivores?

Natural selection from herbivory has prompted plants to evolve a wide array of resistance traits to reduce losses from herbivory. Plants avoid herbivory by hiding, building structural barriers, producing and acquiring chemical toxins, and recruiting predatory ‘bodyguards’.