Does Moraxella catarrhalis grow on MacConkey Agar?

catarrhalis appears as extracelluar, kidney-shaped diplococci, measuring 0.5 – 1.5µm in diameter on Gram stained clinical specimens. They grow well on blood agar as well as chocolate agar but not on MacConkey agar.

Is Moraxella lactose fermenter?

The colonies did not demonstrate hemolysis, and were not able to ferment glucose, sucrose, maltose, or lactose. They were able to produce DNase. Cultures of the M. catarrhalis tested positive for oxidase, lipase, and nitrate reduction, which is characteristic of M.

How do you differentiate Moraxella and Neisseria?

The key difference between Neisseria and Moraxella is that Neisseria is a genus that belongs to the class of beta proteobacteria while Moraxella is a genus that belongs to the class of gamma proteobacteria. Proteobacteria is a major phylum comprised of gram-negative bacteria.

How is Moraxella catarrhalis identified?

catarrhalis must be distinguished from Neisseria spp. Colonies of M. catarrhalis may have a rough surface and be friable in consistency, pinkish-brown in color, and opaque.

Does Moraxella grow on blood agar?

Moraxella organisms are small, gram-negative bacteria that grow well on blood or chocolate agar. They are catalase and oxidase positive. These small diplococci are morphologically difficult to distinguish from Neisseria. Some Moraxella species are gram-negative bacilli.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis viral or bacterial?

Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis) is a type of bacteria that’s also known as Neisseria catarrhalis and Branhamella catarrhalis. It used to be considered a normal part of the human respiratory system, but more recent research shows that can it sometimes causes infections. Many young children have M.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis beta hemolytic?

Moraxella catarrhalis is an oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, gram-negative diplococci that exhibits γ-hemolysis (no hemolysis) when grown on blood agar plates (Figure 2-5).

Are Moraxella catarrhalis cocci or bacilli?

Moraxella organisms are gram-negative cocci in the family Neisseriaceae. They were previously known as diplococcus of Morax-Axenfeld.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis spore forming?

Moraxella catarrhalis is also non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic, which means it needs oxygen to survive, and oxidase positive, which means it produces an enzyme called oxidase. However, it’s maltose fermentation negative which means it cannot ferment maltose.

Is Moraxella aerobic or anaerobic?

Moraxella catarrhalis is an obligately aerobic Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human upper respiratory tract.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis motile?

Moraxella Catarrhalis, formerly known as Branhamella Catarrhalis, is an infrequent cause of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients. So far, only five cases have been reported in the literature [1–4]. Moraxella species are gram negative, non-motile diploccocci and may be encapsulated.

Does Moraxella catarrhalis grow on Thayer Martin?

However, it has been shown that growth at 22°C and failure to grow on modified Thayer-Martin medium are not reliable parameters for the correct identification of M. catarrhalis (76).

What is the arrangement of Moraxella catarrhalis?

(coccobacillus) Curved, straight or bean-shaped: bacilli come in many variants and are widely spread. Moraxella catarrhalis is an aerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus – previously also referred to as Neisseria catarrhalis or Micrococcus catarrhalis.

What are the virulence factors of Moraxella catarrhalis?

Abstract. Moraxella catarrhalis is a common human respiratory tract pathogen. Its virulence factors associated with whole bacteria or outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) aid infection, colonization and may induce specific antibodies.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis opportunistic?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis opportunistic pathogen?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a common inhabitant of the human upper respiratory tract and is an opportunistic pathogen associated with otitis media in infants and children and lower respiratory tract infection in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Murphy, 1996; Murphy and Parameswaran, 2009).

How does Moraxella catarrhalis spread?

The organism appears to spread contiguously from its colonizing position in the respiratory tract to the infection site. There is no pathognomonic feature of M. catarrhalis otitis media, acute or chronic sinusitis, or pneumonia.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis common?

Alongside Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis is one of the most common causes of ear infections (otitis media) in children. About 15% to 20% of acute ear infections are caused by this bacterium.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis atypical?

“Atypical pneumonia” is atypical in that it is caused by atypical organisms (other than Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). These atypical organisms include special bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

Where is Moraxella catarrhalis found?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative diplococcus that commonly colonizes the upper respiratory tract. It is a leading cause of otitis media in children, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

How common is Moraxella catarrhalis?

Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen and is a common cause of otitis media in infants and children, causing 15%-20% of acute otitis media episodes. M. catarrhalis causes an estimated 2–4 million exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults annually in the United States.

What is Moraxella catarrhalis beta-lactamase positive?

Beta-lactamases produced by the M. catarrhalis not only protect the pathogen but also inactivate penicillin, an antibiotic that is commonly used for the treatment of mixed infections caused by other airway pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and/or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [1, 4].

Does Moraxella produce beta-lactamase?

Moraxella catarrhalis is an important pathogen in both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. More than 90% of isolates worldwide produce beta-lactamase. The beta-lactamases produced by M. catarrhalis can be differentiated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) into BRO-1 and BRO-2 patterns.

What antibiotics cover Moraxella catarrhalis?

Amoxicillin-clavulanate, second- and third-generation oral cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) are the most recommended agents. Alternatively, azithromycin or clarithromycin can be used. More than 90% of M catarrhalis strains have been shown to resist amoxicillin, and these rates vary by region.