Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss.
Is DKA hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia?
Both DKA and HHS are characterized by hyperglycemia and absolute or relative insulinopenia. Clinically, they differ by the severity of dehydration, ketosis, and metabolic acidosis (17). DKA most often occurs in patients with T1D.
How does DKA cause hypoglycemia?
Insulin allows sugar to enter your cells, causing your blood sugar level to drop. If your blood sugar level drops too quickly, you can develop low blood sugar. Low potassium (hypokalemia). The fluids and insulin used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis can cause your potassium level to drop too low.
Is DKA hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of DKA and can be prevented by timely adjustment of insulin dose and frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels. Hypoglycemia is defined as any blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL.
What is the difference between DKA and hyperglycemia?
DKA typically evolves within a few hours, whereas HHNS is much slower and occurs over days to weeks, according to 2021 research . The two conditions look similar because of the hyperglycemia component of each condition. Knowing the symptoms of each can help you seek medical care as soon as possible.
Does DKA cause hypokalemia or hyperkalemia?
DKA is a well-known cause of hypokalemia caused by osmotic diuresis leading to a total body potassium deficiency of 3 to 6 mEq/kg. At presentation, potassium levels are typically “normal” due to the extracellular shift of potassium (K+) from insulin deficiency and acidosis.
When does hyperglycemia become DKA?
Diabetic ketoacidosis is typically characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) over 300 mg/dLm a bicarbonate level less than 15 mEq/L, and a pH less than 7.30m with ketones present in the blood and urine.
What is the most common cause of DKA?
DKA is a state of absolute or relative insulin deficiency aggravated by ensuing hyperglycemia, dehydration, and acidosis-producing derangements in intermediary metabolism. The most common causes are underlying infection, disruption of insulin treatment, and new onset of diabetes.